Sunday, October 7, 2012

Diving into recent 0day Javascript obfuscations


One of the most common ways for an attacker to infect system over the Internet is using Javascript. Typical Web exploitation frameworks like Blackhole utilize polimorphic Javascript as a personalized payloads for every victim. By employing various obfuscations they are able to evade static signatures and reduce anti-virus detection rates.
In this post we will analyze one of such Javascript obfuscators called Dadong's JSXX that was used to obfuscate the payload of a recent Java 0day (CVE-2012-4681) exploit that was found in the wild and has since been patched by Oracle and it is recommended that you apply the security patch to ensure maximum protection.
DefenseCode BlackTitan Internet Security customers are protected from described exploit with BlackTitan malware signatures BTSIG9612, BTSIG9613 and BTSIG9615.

Analysis of Dadong JSXX obfuscated payload

Let's first take a look at the fully obfuscated JavaScript code that is generated by the attacker. The following code is generated by the attacker for each visit of the web page serving the exploit which is then responsible for exploiting Java vulnerability and installing malicious software:

First thing we can notice is that this code was not designed to be easy to understand and analyze. In fact it is designed to thwart static analysis and automated deobfuscation tools so that it can stay undetected longer.
While looking at the obfuscated code several things become obvious:
  • Code alignment and flow structure is not preserved
  • Original variable and function names are replaced by random strings
  • Various additional obfuscations introduced to additionally deter analysis
To get a better understanding of the code we will tackle all of the mentioned observations in a attempt to fully understand it.

Recovering code alignment and flow structure

Most development editors and environments have basic code prettify functionality that will allow you to format code into a more readable structure. Malzilla is described as a "malware hunting tool" and has ability to format obfuscated javascript code into a much nicer layout. Some manual formatting or regex replacements may be necessary to do some final touches on the formatted code until we are fully satisfied with the results. After we are satisfied with the code layout we can proceed to the next step.

Recovering function and variable names

While analyzing the code we uncover semantics of functions and variables and should rename them as we advance trough the code. Every new renamed variable/function will speed up further analysis and reduce the time to cover all the code. Names should be concise and have clear meaning associated with them so all subsequent encounters of that variable/function are quickly recognized and can be skipped.
Following is an example of code before and after renaming process.
Obfuscated code:

Renamed code:

Common JavaScript obfuscations

After code has been properly formatted we can see additional obfuscations introduced to the code. Let's now examine common JavaScript obfuscations on this sample.

Hiding use of eval()

One of the most commonly used JavaScript obfuscations is using eval() function to run code stored as a string in a variable. This obfuscator is no different and uses several different eval() obfuscations.
To hide uses of eval() the code will assign function to various randomly named variables in an attempt to disguise eval usage. The following code snippet shows several steps used to hide eval() from static analysis.

This technique of hiding functions is not reserved just for eval() but it is typically used to obfuscate usage of all functions that could be used to statically identify malicious code.
Slightly more advanced example of assigning eval to a variable is use using string transformations to build eval string. One such example is inserting junk characters in between eval letters and then removing them dynamically with regular expressions. With this simple rule it is possible to generate polymorphic eval assignments.

Previous expression will remove all characters from the string except those listed in the regular expression, which is equivalent to the following:

Opaque predicates

Opaque predicate is defined as an expression for which outcome is predetermined to be always true or false. Most simple example of this is expression if( true ). Malware authors use opaque predicates to thwart static analysis tools by constructing expressions that are not so simple to determine without evaluating them inside the targeted environment. Dadong JSXX uses mathematical functions to build opaque predicates which are then used as arguments in loops. Let's examine one of the expressions used as opaque predicate:

We can divide the expression into groups and evaluate each of the logical expressions:

Inserting the results into original expression we have:
~(0 | ( 1 | 0 & 0)) = ~( 0 | 1 ) = ~1 = 0

So the previous complicated expression will always evaluate to 0 and can effectively be rewritten as:
fExpression_eq0 = 0;

Chaining multiple opaque predicates in different variables makes it harder to statically determine what actually is an opaque predicate and what is a non-reducible expression.

Self-referencing decryption

One very interesting method against code formatting is using self referencing decryption. Let's examine the following code snippet:

Rewritten for easier understanding:

aCodeAsString, originally named sBtEp6, is referencing itself inside the string that is evaluated so any modification or formatting of the aCodeAsString will result in unsuccessful decryption of the final payload effectively preventing any modifications to the code.

Encrypted code

All the previous obfuscations serve to make the static decryption of the final malicious payload hard. Variable vlWWlBt3 from the original obfuscated snippet contains hex encoded encrypted JavaScript code. As the decryption algorithm has to be contained in the script previous obfuscations make sure that detection and analysis of the algorithms are complicated. Encryption algorithms is XOR based where the decryption key is generated from the self-referencing string so it implement simple type of tamper-proof protection. Decrypted code is then simply evaluated by eval() and executed inside the browser.
Final functionality contains the malicious payload that will launch the Java exploit and install malware on the compromised system.


JavaScript language with it's loose syntax offers variety of ways for the attackers to generate polymorphic wrappers for the malicious payload which effectively hinders traditional anti-malware signatures. By understanding techniques employed by the malware authors we can provide the best protection to our customers with BlackTitan Internet Security.


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  66. Time to Win the Buy Box
    Mostly, your acquired products for online arbitrage already have Amazon’s listing, by which it will be shared with many other resellers on Amazon. To get the “Buy Box,” you should compete with them. Amazon awards the sale to a seller based on price, customer feedback, rate of order defection, and length of time selling on Amazon. It is essential to winning the Buy Box as much as possible if you want to succeed on Amazon. So
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    You can send an email to your customer to follow up with them if they are satisfied with their purchase or not. It also brings you this opportunity to ask them to leave you feedback on Amazon’s review. Increasing the number of reviews is a positive point and will improve customer satisfaction.

  67. Fee Payment of Amazon FBA
    Amazon never postpones its charge. Basically, Amazon will take from you all the fees you owe before paying you.
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    The tax of sale is managed based on the state level. If you have a business in one state, but your warehouse is placed in another state, you might not know which tax rate applies to you. It would be best if you use the tools that automate various tax rules and situations. You can trust Amazon to manage most of this for you.
    How Much It Costs To Start Amazon FBA Business?
    Cost is the section that sellers always want to jump. According to Jungle Scout’s research, some Amazon sellers are starting an Amazon FBA business with $500 or less.
    Amazon app's seller panel
    At the same time, other sellers spend five figures or more on new business. And both groups became successful on Amazon. In general, the cost depends on your selling plan and the strategy you choose. So while starting an Amazon FBA business, you need to consider two preliminary charges: fees and the cost of your shipments.

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  69. Find ideas on Pinterest.
    This social media platform has an option for images they may be liked: ”pin.” So everybody can see these images—the number of pins that an item has shows that it is trending online.
    Search the Amazon Trends Report
    There is an excellent resource on Amazon that the trending products on different platforms are listed.
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  70. What Is Online Arbitrage Leads List?
    If you want to do online arbitrage without software hassles and spend time checking every website, you can buy a list of products from good companies.
    It would be best to find great deals before starting your business on Amazon or other marketplaces. It’s crucial to choose profitable items, so the sellers use analyzing tools alongside various methods to increase sales and have a successful business.
    Purchasing online arbitrage leads list is a hassle-free method to source your items. Every day you can find low price or discounted items from different online stores without spending many hours searching and analyzing.
    Amazon sourcing leads are created by experts and software and online tools, and it can reduce the possible errors.
    The ROI of the leads lists can vary from 10% to 100% based on the provider company. So before buying any service, make sure the service can make you happy.
    From manual sourcing to hiring an assistant, you have to be a part of this procedure. But when you purchase online arbitrage deals, you receive different profitable deals on your email and check the items as you drink your morning coffee.
    So, if you want to pass finding profitable deals onto another one and focusing on the more critical part of your business, buying a high-quality online arbitrage sourcing list is my suggestion.

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  74. Amazon, as an e-commerce leader, offers different business models and attracts various tastes in business. Suppose a former employee has a limited budget but wants to be his boss. In that case, Amazon can give him a company and reduce initial costs, or if a manufacturer looks for shoppers across the world, Amazon is an excellent platform to catch customers' attention. But this diversity can be confusing when it comes to starting a business.
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    - Retail arbitrage
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    - Online arbitrage
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    Online arbitrage is the act of buying something online (from online retailers like Walmart) and sells it on an online marketplace (like Amazon) for a profit. It seems all you need is a computer, yes and no. Online arbitrage isn't a "get rich quick" scheme. If you don't want to end up out of pocket and holding plenty of inventory that you can't sell, you need tools, data, and a systematic approach to identifying profitable deals.
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    This business model is largely the same as retail arbitrage. However, everything is on the internet in online arbitrage, from searching for profitable deals and listing them to sourcing, selling, and shipping them. You don't need to check the physical stores, and you are not limited to your local sales, but you can source your products from all over the world. That's why online arbitrage is much easier than retail arbitrage. This business model allows you to work remotely from everywhere at any time.

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  76. Is Online Arbitrage Legal?
    The Online Arbitrage Deals process is generally legal. But you have to be careful to follow the terms of buying and selling. For example, the products of a brand may be sold only by authorized sellers. Before starting your work process, you should know the terms of buying and selling the product.
    Do not forget that any fraud or circumvention of Amazon rules can lead to the suspension of your account or severe legal problems because Amazon has strict rules against infringements. But as long as you follow Amazon's rules, you do not need to worry.
    How to Start Online Arbitrage?
    There are several steps you can take to begin the Amazon Online Arbitrage process. The steps are summarized as follows:
    Choose the right products for sale
    Collect product lists from retail websites
    Preparing products for sale in preparation centers
    List products on Amazon
    Sell products and respond to customers
    The first step is to choose the products you want to sell. See what kind of products you are interested in selling and which type of products you are more capable of finding at low prices. You also need to evaluate the profitability of the products you are considering.
    Now it's time to list and collect your items. You can consider websites like Walmart or Target and buy product listings from them. Or you can hire a team to collect these lists.
    The third step is to prepare the products for sale on Amazon. You can send your products to preparation centers. They will review your products and send them in new packaging to Amazon Warehouse. Then you have to enter your products on Amazon and wait for your products to sell. Try to be responsive to your customers so that you do not get negative feedback from them.

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  87. Different Types of Online Arbitrage
    Online Arbitrage is not limited to selling on Amazon, although it is the most popular marketplace. You can resell your products in other marketplaces in this eCommerce business model. Here, they are listed:

    Amazon to eBay Arbitrage
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  102. Online Arbitrage and Retail Arbitrage are two methods for selling on Amazon. Both are profitable, but you need to know how to use each technique to earn money. Follow the above-mentioned post to know each of them and discover the difference between Online Arbitrage and Retail Arbitrage, and how to make money from Online Arbitrage deals. It is also described that analyzing competitors and good product searching are essential to selling on Amazon successfully. You don’t need to worry about the legality of Online Arbitrage, as it is legit in most countries.
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